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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - biotechnology @ Sun, 9 Dec 2018 at 07:32 AM
Design for Values in Agricultural Biotechnology - Handbook of Ethics, Values, and Technological Design @ 2021-01-01
Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have been provided to promote the development of this new technology. The applications of biotechnology raise a whole range of value issues, like consumer and farmer autonomy, respect for intellectual property, environmental sustainability, food security, social justice, and economic growth. Hitherto the field has not yet witnessed any deliberate attempt at value-sensitive design or design for values. The reason is that under the influence of strong commercial motivations, applications have been developed first and foremost with simple agronomic aims in view, such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, traits which are based on single genes. The opportunities for value-sensitive design appear to be constrained by the special character of the biological domain. Many desirable traits like drought tolerance are genetically complex traits that cannot be built into organisms by the insertion of one or a few genes. Another problem is that nature tends to fight back, so that insects become immune to insect-resistant crops and weeds become invulnerable to herbicides. This leads to the phenomenon of perishable knowledge, which also calls the so-called patent bargain into question. The possibilities for value-sensitive design will likely increase with synthetic biology, a more advanced form of biotechnology that aims at making biology (more) “easy to engineer.” Practitioners of this new field are acutely aware of the need to proceed in a socially responsible way so as to ensure sufficient societal support. Yet synthetic biologists are currently also engaged in a fundamental debate on whether they will ultimately succeed in tackling biological complexity.
 
Enzymes are the key substances responsible for a variety of biotechnological processes involved in the production of useful bioproducts. Malt and microbial species (bacteria, fungi, etc.) are the main sources of endogenous hydrolyzing enzymes (EHEs). EHEs are primarily involved in the digestion of complex substrates into simpler units and the resulting formation of biological products. Based on origin and substrate specificity, EHEs are categorized into cell wall-, starch-, protein-, lipid-, nucleic acid-, polyphenol-, and thiol-hydrolyzing enzymes. The substrate specificities and reaction mechanisms of individual EHEs and groups of EHEs have been verified through isolated and purified enzymes. A number of methods have been reported for high-yield, economically feasible isolation of enzymes. The endogenous enzymes contained in microbial cells are separated from cells, cellular fragments, and organelles through several cell lysis and separation methods. Analysis of the mechanism of action has revealed that most enzymes systematically undergo biological processes through a cascade of enzyme-specific reactions. The applications of these EHEs are involved in almost every aspect of human and animal life and are important in food, animal feed, textile, paper and pulp, fuel (energy), pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. In this chapter, we describe the origins, classes, isolation techniques, mechanisms, and applications of various EHEs with examples from updated literature.
 
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Cellulose from Lignocellulosic Waste - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
Bioconversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel and value-added products is globally gaining significant importance. Lignocellulosic wastes are the most promising feedstock considering its great availability and low cost. Biomass conversion process involves mainly two steps: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol and other bioproducts. However, sugars necessary for fermentation are trapped inside the recalcitrant structure of the lignocellulose. Hence, pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes is always necessary to alter and/or remove the surrounding matrix of lignin and hemicellulose in order to improve the hydrolysis of cellulose. These pretreatments cause physical and/or chemical changes in the plant biomass in order to achieve this result. Each pretreatment has a specific effect on the cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin fraction. Thus, the pretreatment methods and conditions should be chosen according to the process configuration selected for the subsequent hydrolysis steps. In general, pretreatment methods can be classified into four categories, including physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological pretreatment. This chapter addresses different pretreatment technologies envisaging enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production and other bioproducts. It primarily covers the structure of lignocellulosic wastes; the characteristics of different pretreatment methods; enzymatic hydrolysis; fermentation and bioproducts; and future research challenges and trends.
 
Algal Polysaccharides and Health - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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Algal Polysaccharides and Health - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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Algal Polysaccharides and Health - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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Cyclodextrins - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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Cyclodextrins - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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Dextran and Food Application - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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Dextran and Food Application - Polysaccharides @ 2021-01-01
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This chapter describes the importance of the polysaccharides obtained from different natural sources as well as their natural occurrence. An overview on the different biological activities of the polysaccharides obtained from fungi, bacteria, and algae is provided. The potential of microbial organisms, especially microfungi and bacteria, as well as macromycete fungi, during production of bioactive polysaccharides at large scale is recognized. The features of the submerged fermentation technology are disclosed considering that this cultivation technique has played and continues playing a crucial role in the industrial production of different polysaccharides with diverse biological activities. Main topics related to the production of these compounds by submerged fermentation making emphasis in the production of fungal and bacterial polysaccharides are briefly described as well. Finally, some words on the significance of the research and development on production of bioactive polysaccharide are presented.
 
 
 
Found 17 Articles for biotechnology