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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - dna forensic @ Mon, 24 Sep 2018 at 07:31 AM
Forensic Science - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics @ 2021-01-01
Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology, dentistry, pathology, toxicology, entomology, psychology, accounting, engineering, and computer forensics. Forensic evidence is gathered, examined, evaluated, interpreted, and presented to make sense of an event and provide investigatory leads. Various classification schemes exist for forensic evidence, with some forms of evidence falling under more than one scheme. Rules of evidence differ between jurisdictions, even between countries that share similar legal traditions. This makes the sharing of evidence between countries particularly problematic, at times rendering this evidence inadmissible in national courts. Several measures have been proposed and organizations created to strengthen forensic science and promote best practices for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in the field.
 
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging - Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
 
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Forensic Applications - Digital Technology for Forensic Footwear Analysis and Vertebrate Ichnology @ 2019-01-01
Within this chapter we focus on forensic applications for 3D files and more generally on forensic practice where trace footwear is involved. We discuss the challenges of individualisation based on recovered footwear traces and explore the associated issues of probability. We finish with a series of fictitious cases which we hope illustrates the potential of 3D analysis in a forensic context.
 
Liquid Handling Robot for DNA Extraction - Machines, Mechanism and Robotics @ 2019-01-01
Liquid Handling Robots serve to automate the small volume liquid transactions for handling solutions in the research laboratories associated in the field of chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and more. They are used either to eliminate the tedious manual work required in carrying out a large number of pipetting operations or for handling potentially harmful solutions. Liquid Handling Robot is developed for executing simultaneous liquid transaction reactions on a large number of samples to extract DNA molecules from the living cells. This DNA separation reaction is performed by magnetic bead separation method. Multichannel electronic liquid dispensing head is developed to handle biological solutions in microscopic quantities. A robotic positioning system is designed and developed for maneuvering this liquid dispensing head as per the application requirement. A magnet module consisting of an array of permanent magnets operated by a rotary solenoid is developed for DNA extraction. The robotic positioning system and dispensing head is commanded by a customized software interface which provides high throughput. The system is designed for carrying liquids ranging from 30 to 300 ?l with repeatability of?<5%. The paper discusses the general overview of Liquid Handling Robots, magnetic bead method of DNA extraction, design of a multichannel micropipette, and other major components of the system.
 
Tracks and Trackways - Digital Technology for Forensic Footwear Analysis and Vertebrate Ichnology @ 2019-01-01
This chapter provides a broad overview of tracks and trackways relevant to both vertebrate and forensic footprints and footwear, along with a review of the rationale and contents of this book. Key definitions are introduced and explained and some principles of scientific method are also explored which are important to questions of data interpretation especially in forensic practice which is discussed in later chapters.
 
A Novel Level-Based DNA Security Algorithm Using DNA Codons - Computational Intelligence and Big Data Analytics @ 2019-01-01
Providing security to the information has become more prominent due to the extensive usage of the Internet. The risk of storing the data has become a serious problem as the numbers of threats have increased with the growth of the emerging technologies. To overcome this problem, it is essential to encrypt the information before sending it to the communication channels to display it as a code. The silicon computers may be replaced by DNA computers in the near future as it is believed that DNA computers can store the entire information of the world in few grams of DNA. Hence, researchers attributed much of their work in DNA computing. One of the new and emerging fields of DNA computing is DNA cryptography which plays a vital role. In this paper, we proposed a DNA-based security algorithm using DNA Codons. This algorithm uses substitution method in which the substitution is done based on the Lookup table which contains the DNA Codons and their corresponding equivalent alphabet values. This table is randomly arranged, and it can be transmitted to the receiver through the secure media. The central idea of DNA molecules is to store information for long term. The test results proved that it is more powerful and reliable than the existing algorithms.
 
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