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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - dna forensic @ Sat, 25 May 2019 at 07:33 AM
Forensic Science - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics @ 2021-01-01
Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology, dentistry, pathology, toxicology, entomology, psychology, accounting, engineering, and computer forensics. Forensic evidence is gathered, examined, evaluated, interpreted, and presented to make sense of an event and provide investigatory leads. Various classification schemes exist for forensic evidence, with some forms of evidence falling under more than one scheme. Rules of evidence differ between jurisdictions, even between countries that share similar legal traditions. This makes the sharing of evidence between countries particularly problematic, at times rendering this evidence inadmissible in national courts. Several measures have been proposed and organizations created to strengthen forensic science and promote best practices for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in the field.
 
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging - Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
 
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A Robust Speech Encryption System Based on DNA Addition and Chaotic Maps - Intelligent Systems Design and Applications @ 2020-01-01
Encryption is one of the most important methods for providing data security mainly for an end to end protection of data transmitted across the networks. In this paper, we proposed a speech encryption algorithm based on DNA addition and chaotic maps for secure speech communication. The algorithm deals with sampled speech signal that is given as input which is divided into four segments of equal duration. During successive levels of iteration, the speech segment is permuted and substituted with different chaotic mapping techniques such as sine mapping, henon mapping, logistic mapping and tent mapping. After performing the permutation and substitution all the segments are combined and encoded as a sequence of DNA’s denoted by X. The DNA sequence X and DNA sequence Y obtained using henon mapping are summed up together using DNA addition operation. Finally, the speech encryption is obtained as the result using DNA decoding. The correlation co-efficient test, Signal to noise ratio test and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio test provides better analysis of the proposed system. The algorithm also provides a better simulation result and also helps in resisting the brute force attacks and differential attacks.
 
Role of Robotic Process Automation in Pharmaceutical Industries - The International Conference on Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications (AMLTA2019) @ 2020-01-01
Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is a technological revolution in the offing and is aimed at taking up the mundane and repetitive tasks from people’s daily workload. It throws up a new vista of research to the research community and lot many types of research are going on in this domain. It is not Robotics but is different technology altogether. RPA is a recent and fast-growing sub-domain of Robotics. The healthcare and pharmaceutics domain generate a lot of data or we may call it medical big data, and it is all the more pertinent to analyze & evaluate such data coming from varied sources. New drug discovery, drug formulation process, drug delivery mechanisms or in-patient and out-patient activities are some of the key processes in the Healthcare and Pharmaceutical industries generating a tremendous amount of data. Therefore, data science and RPA provides handy tools to work with such huge data volumes. In this paper, the authors highlight the key aspects of RPA and review its usage in the all-important healthcare and pharmaceutics domain. RPA is proving to be the technology of future and its goal is to provide a sustainable solution that reduces costs and delivery time, improves quality, speed and operational efficiency of a business process. The application of Machine Learning (ML) technologies in the healthcare domain are proving to be beneficial and effective in gaining new insights. The author also proposes a generic RPA/ML-based framework to ensure the standardization and quality of Bhasma – an end product obtained after multiple activities in the traditional Indian System of Medicine – Ayurveda.
 
Phylogenetic Tree Construction Using Chemical Reaction Optimization - Intelligent Systems Design and Applications @ 2020-01-01
Phylogenetic tree construction (PT) problem is a well-known NP-hard optimization problem that finds most accurate tree representing evolutionary relationships among species. Different criteria are used to measure the quality of a phylogeny tree by analyzing their relationships and nucleotide sequences. With increasing number of species, solution space of phylogenetic tree construction problem grows exponentially. In this paper, we have implemented Chemical Reaction Optimization algorithm to solve phylogeny construction problem for multiple datasets. For exploring both local and global search space, we have redesigned four elementary operators of CRO to solve phylogeny construction problem. One correction method has been designed for finding good combination of species according to maximum parsimony criterion. The experimental results show that for maximum parsimony criterion our implemented algorithm gives better results for three real datasets and same for one dataset.
 
Advances in Bioremediation of Toxic Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Contaminated Soil and Aquatic Systems - Bioremediation of Industrial Waste for Environmental Safety @ 2020-01-01
Metals are used in several products essential to humans. However, processes for extraction of the metals generate effluents containing chemical by-products many of which are toxic to living organisms and are disruptive to ecosystems. Processes used in the creation of useful products from the metals leave a legacy of pollution that may take generations to clear. Metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, and uranium, and a range of metalloids such as arsenic and selenium, are widely known for their acute toxicity at high doses and carcinogenicity at low doses. Several technologies for treatment of land and water that have been contaminated with toxic heavy metals have been proposed. Other metallic elements, although possessing no significant chemical toxicity to organisms, occur as radioactive isotopes that impart oxidative stress on organisms leading to increased incidence of mutations and carcinomas in animal tissue. The main difficulty in the treatment of metals is that the metals cannot be degraded or mineralized as is the case with organic pollutants. Metallic elements can only be oxidized or reduced to forms that are less mobile and easier to extract from the environment. This chapter is compiled from information from projects in which metals were either oxidized or reduced to less mobile and less toxic states using pure or consortium cultures of bacteria followed by immobilization or extraction using physical or biological media. The uptake of metals for reuse was attempted using bioengineered molecular adsorbents on cell surfaces. The latter process was developed to facilitate selective uptake of different metallic species as a low energy biorefinery.
 
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