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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - dna forensic @ Mon, 19 Nov 2018 at 07:31 AM
Forensic Science - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics @ 2021-01-01
Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology, dentistry, pathology, toxicology, entomology, psychology, accounting, engineering, and computer forensics. Forensic evidence is gathered, examined, evaluated, interpreted, and presented to make sense of an event and provide investigatory leads. Various classification schemes exist for forensic evidence, with some forms of evidence falling under more than one scheme. Rules of evidence differ between jurisdictions, even between countries that share similar legal traditions. This makes the sharing of evidence between countries particularly problematic, at times rendering this evidence inadmissible in national courts. Several measures have been proposed and organizations created to strengthen forensic science and promote best practices for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in the field.
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging - Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
Genetics in Forensic Science - Forensic Medicine and Human Cell Research @ 2019-01-01
DNA profiling is a powerful forensic technique to identify individuals because DNA is different among individuals, except for identical twins. Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR), Y chromosomal STR, and mitochondrial DNA testing have been performed for identification. Autosomal STR and Y chromosomal STR are analyzed using STR multiplex assays that simultaneously amplify many STR loci. Therefore, large amounts of information can be obtained from a small amount of DNA. Mitochondrial DNA testing is an efficient way to identify from samples, especially those that have low and/or highly degraded DNA content. DNA profiling is useful not only for forensic casework but also for cell line authentication.Significant associations between gene polymorphisms and the response to drugs have been well demonstrated. Multiple drug resistance 1 pumps many foreign substances out of the cells and plays an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution. Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a major role in drug metabolism. The dopamine D2 receptor is the common target for most antipsychotic drugs. Catechol-O-methyltransferase is an enzyme that degrades catecholamines. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with drug response. Thus, genetic background should be considered in the forensic autopsy diagnoses of intoxication.
Bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology share key aspects of training and practice. Both fields, for example, study and interpret evidence of violence, sometimes directly contradicting politically charged interpretations. Forensic anthropology has, however, achieved more visibility among nonspecialists. Media prominence has significant ramifications, however, as public perceptions are frequently distorted, raising unrealistic expectations of scientific deliverables, especially in mass grave investigations. Perhaps at the core of the problem is that potential jurors and families of victims embrace a body-as-evidence paradigm—the notion that physical evidence obtained from the deceased is static, unperturbed, infallible, and unopposable. Physical evidence, including that of skeletons, is best understood within particular contexts such that the interpretations are dynamic, flexible, and falsifiable. Popular books and television shows (and sometimes forensic scientists themselves) replace the messy gray parts of forensic science (or any science) with broad brushes of black and white. This causes frustration for forensic anthropologists who often face confidentiality and legal issues that may limit them from directly communicating with the public whenever interest is peaked. This chapter examines the impact of the body-as-evidence paradigm in both domestic and international contexts and encourages forensic anthropologists to speak out on the gray parts of the science.
Forensic Autopsies - Autopsy in the 21st Century @ 2019-01-01
The practice of forensic pathology is ancient, yet it is a relatively recently recognized subspecialty (1956). Forensic pathologists work as medical examiners in medical examiner and coroner (ME/C) offices. Approximately one third of all deaths fall under the jurisdiction of ME/C offices. There are approximately 2000 coroner offices and 400 medical examiner offices in the United States, but approximately half of the population is served by a medical examiner. There is a significant workforce shortage of forensic pathologists that is exacerbated by the current opioid crisis. The forensic autopsy is the primary tool of the forensic pathologist, but a good medicolegal death investigation is also key. Courtroom testimony is an integral component of the practice. Forensic pathologists are involved in mass disasters. Advanced imaging and molecular pathology are new tools of the forensic pathologist.
Forensic Applications - Digital Technology for Forensic Footwear Analysis and Vertebrate Ichnology @ 2019-01-01
Within this chapter we focus on forensic applications for 3D files and more generally on forensic practice where trace footwear is involved. We discuss the challenges of individualisation based on recovered footwear traces and explore the associated issues of probability. We finish with a series of fictitious cases which we hope illustrates the potential of 3D analysis in a forensic context.
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