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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - dna forensic @ Mon, 16 Oct 2017 at 04:58 PM
Forensic Science - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics @ 2021-01-01
Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology, dentistry, pathology, toxicology, entomology, psychology, accounting, engineering, and computer forensics. Forensic evidence is gathered, examined, evaluated, interpreted, and presented to make sense of an event and provide investigatory leads. Various classification schemes exist for forensic evidence, with some forms of evidence falling under more than one scheme. Rules of evidence differ between jurisdictions, even between countries that share similar legal traditions. This makes the sharing of evidence between countries particularly problematic, at times rendering this evidence inadmissible in national courts. Several measures have been proposed and organizations created to strengthen forensic science and promote best practices for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in the field.
 
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging - Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
 
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Digging, Dollars, and Drama: The Economics of Forensic Archeology and Migrant Exhumation - Sociopolitics of Migrant Death and Repatriation @ 2018-01-01
Forensic archeology employs a systematic approach to the recovery of human remains and associated evidentiary items. Employing archeological technique to the exhumation of human remains takes a substantial amount of planning and expertise. For exhumations of unidentified migrants, additional political and cultural factors must be considered. This chapter explores the efforts of university volunteers before, during, and after the large-scale exhumations that took place in 2013 and 2014 in Brooks County, TX, and places their work within a broader sociopolitical framework. It positions the forensic scientist within a complex set of interactions where they are both a commodity producer and consumer and therefore an actor in the political economy of forensic science in the Texas borderlands. Additionally, it introduces readers to the skills and planning required to conduct these complex exhumations while exploring unique outside factors like funding and media involvement that impact these exhumations.
 
Introduction - Development of a Fully Integrated “Sample-In-Answer-Out” System for Automatic Genetic Analysis @ 2018-01-01
The tradition classic approach toward genetic approach is present. Several methods for DNA extraction, amplification and electrophoresis are enumerated. Different kinds of approaches have their own advantages and application occasions. Microfluidic is a newly developed technology that aims at precisely manipulating fluidic of micro-scale. The microfluidic made it possible to integrate tradition genetic analysis process onto one single microchip for automation. Several trials have been made to transplant tradition process onto microfluidic platform, although various weak points restricted them from further industrialization. This chapter will give a brief introduction of the standard three-step process of genetic analysis on each step followed by a detailed expatiation on the development of microfluidic technology. All steps of genetic analysis, extraction, amplification and detection, have all been transplanted on-chip separately, and further researches also reported the integration of partial process. Several integrated systems are also introduced, along with careful evaluations. At the end of chapter, the significance of this study will be stated, and mainlines of following chapters will be addressed.
 
Bodies in Limbo: Issues in Identification and Repatriation of Migrant Remains in South Texas - Sociopolitics of Migrant Death and Repatriation @ 2018-01-01
This chapter traces the movement of deceased migrants in South Texas through the system of identification and repatriation. Given significant differences in funding, resources, labor power, institutional support, and time, the timing and movement of bodies through the process are highly variable. In many ways, the fragmentation and differential support for volunteer forensic scientists have produced particular systems-level nodes where bodies may wait “in limbo” for years. This chapter considers constraints faced by forensic scientists and the systemic implications of those individual constraints.
 
Imagining Origins Through Ancient Human DNA - Population Genetics and Belonging @ 2018-01-01
The chapter explores how studies comparing modern DNA to DNA retrieved from ancient human remains engender a molecularized temporal trajectory that connects the bodies of modern humans to a fantasized point of origins in the prehistoric past. The chapter focuses on the cultural debates surrounding the DNA of two 9000-year-old human remains, the so-called Kennewick Man discovered in Washington State in the United States and Cheddar Man discovered in Somerset in the United Kingdom. Through the two debates, the chapter identifies crucial differences between American and British negotiations over evolutionary origins. At the same time, the chapter shows how both debates mobilized and enacted multiple forms of ethnic, national, regional, and personal belonging.
 
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