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Articles from Springer a leading global scientific publisher of scientific books and journals. - dna forensic @ Tue, 17 Mar 2020 at 07:31 AM
Forensic Science - Encyclopedia of Law and Economics @ 2021-01-01
Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology, dentistry, pathology, toxicology, entomology, psychology, accounting, engineering, and computer forensics. Forensic evidence is gathered, examined, evaluated, interpreted, and presented to make sense of an event and provide investigatory leads. Various classification schemes exist for forensic evidence, with some forms of evidence falling under more than one scheme. Rules of evidence differ between jurisdictions, even between countries that share similar legal traditions. This makes the sharing of evidence between countries particularly problematic, at times rendering this evidence inadmissible in national courts. Several measures have been proposed and organizations created to strengthen forensic science and promote best practices for practitioners, researchers, and academicians in the field.
 
Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Genetics and Tropical Forests - Tropical Forestry Handbook @ 2021-01-01
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Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging - Handbook of Photonics for Biomedical Engineering @ 2021-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a key fluorescence microscopy technique to map the environment and interaction of fluorescent probes. It can report on photophysical events that are difficult or impossible to observe by fluorescence intensity imaging, because FLIM is largely independent of the local fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Many FLIM applications relevant for biology concern the identification of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study protein interactions and conformational changes. In addition, FLIM has been used to image viscosity, temperature, pH, refractive index, and ion and oxygen concentrations, all at the cellular level. The basic principles and recent advances in the application of FLIM, FLIM instrumentation, molecular probe, and FLIM detector development will be discussed.
 
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PCR inhibition in qPCR, dPCR and MPS—mechanisms and solutions - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry @ 2020-04-01
DNA analysis has seen an incredible development in terms of instrumentation, assays and applications over the last years. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and digital PCR are now broadly applied in research and diagnostics, and quantitative PCR is used for more and more practises. All these techniques are based on in vitro DNA polymerization and fluorescence measurements. A major limitation for successful analysis is the various sample-related substances that interfere with the analysis, i.e. PCR inhibitors. PCR inhibition affects library preparation in MPS analysis and skews quantification in qPCR, and some inhibitors have been found to quench the fluorescence of the applied fluorophores. Here, we provide a deeper understanding of mechanisms of specific PCR inhibitors and how these impact specific analytical techniques. This background knowledge is necessary in order to take full advantage of modern DNA analysis techniques, specifically for analysis of samples with low amounts of template and high amounts of background material. The classical solution to handle PCR inhibition is to purify or dilute DNA extracts, which leads to DNA loss. Applying inhibitor-tolerant DNA polymerases, either single enzymes or blends, provides a more straightforward and powerful solution. This review includes mechanisms of specific PCR inhibitors as well as solutions to the inhibition problem in relation to cutting-edge DNA analysis.
 
 
 
Data, Data Banks and Security - European Journal for Security Research @ 2020-04-01
The article discusses different examples of data-driven policing, its legal provisions and effects on a society’s understanding of public security. It distinguishes between (a) the collection of classical data such as fingerprints or DNA, which serve to identify suspects and to collect evidence, (b) the processes and the impetus of big data, and (c) the networking of files from different security authorities. Discussing systematic forecasting tools, the article works out a significant difference between the prediction of incidents such as home burglary in the case of predictive policing, and the identification of individuals deemed to be at risk of involvement in various forms of crime in the case of risk control programs. Data and personality protection are interrelated issues.
 
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine released in injured and contracting skeletal muscles. In this study, we examined cellular expression of proteins associated with cytoskeleton organization and cell migration, chosen on the basis of microRNA profiling, in rat primary skeletal muscle cells (RSkMC) treated with IL-6 (1 ng/ml) for 11 days. MiRNA microarray analysis and qRT-PCR revealed increased expression of miR-154-3p and miR-338-3p in muscle cells treated with IL-6. Pacsin3 was downregulated post-transcriptionally by IL-6, but not by IGF-I. Ephrin4A protein was increased both in IL-6- and IGF-I-treated myocytes. IL-6, but not IGF-I, stimulated migratory ability of RSkMC, examined in wound healing assay. Alpha-actinin protein was slightly augmented in RSKMC treated with IL-6, similarly to IGF-I. IL-6, but not IGF-I, upregulated desmin in differentiating RSkMC. IL-6 supplementation caused accumulation of alpha-actinin and desmin in near-nuclear area of muscle cells, which was manifested by increased ratio: mean near-nuclear fluorescence/mean peripheral cytoplasm fluorescence of these proteins. We concluded that IL-6, a known proinflammatory cytokine and a physical activity-associated myokine, acting during differentiation of primary skeletal muscle cells, alters expression of nonmuscle-specific miRNAs. This cytokine causes differential effects on pacsin-3 and ephrinA4, through post-transcriptional inhibition and stimulation, respectively. IL-6-exerted modifications of cytoskeletal proteins in muscle cells include both transcriptional (desmin and dynein heavy chain 5) and post-transcriptional activation (alpha-actinin). Moreover, IL-6 augments near-nuclear distribution of cytoskeletal proteins, alpha-actinin and desmin and promotes migration of myocytes. Such effects suggest that IL-6 plays a role during skeletal muscle regeneration, acting through mechanisms independent of regulation of myogenic program.
 
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